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Evangelos Christou


hotel branding, advertising, promotion, hospitality marketing


Brand confusion takes place when a person views an advertisement for a particular brand as a communication about a different brand. The purpose of this study is to investigate the problem of brand confusion in advertising and more specifically, to study into more depth some of the parameters that lead to brand confusion in print advertising of international hotel-chains. This study was conducted in 127 men and women, and based on 17 international hotel-chain advertisements. Respondents were selected through quota sampling, using age and education as variables. Consumer characteristics and the dependent variable ‘brand confusion’ were measured through a questionnaire completed during interview, while print advertisements were presented followed by a set of questions containing measures of the attitude towards the advertisement. The purpose of this study was to explore the issue of brand confusion in advertising of international hotel chains, a topic never surveyed in the past. This study was limited to a specific product category (international hotel chains), hence practical implications should be formulated with caution. Nevertheless, the following suggestions seem to be valid: The affective reaction to hotel advertisement is very important; advertisement likeability leads to less hotel brand confusion; hotel advertisements should be distinctive and not too information dense; building awareness, loyalty and involvement reduce brand confusion.

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